By Frances W. Zweifel
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Extra resources for A Handbook of Biological Illustration
Another reason to proceed gradually over the entire picture is that a n Black-and-white Illustrations FIG. 22 Joining inked lines using a fine pen artist tends to draw differently at different times, which could cause the drawing to look disjointed. It is wise to keep the drawing lighter in tone and to space the shading lines or dots a little wider than you really desire, because reduction and printing tend to thicken the lines slightly and "close up" the drawing, thus darkening the picture in general.
Hatching lines should run ivitli the contours whenever possible. Use a flexible point so you can change the pressure while drawing and thus vary the line from fine to broad. The strokes should not end in "hooks"; pick up the pen at the end of the stroke and then move into the next stroke. Occasionally, however, hachures are slightly curved at the ends to suggest creases or indentations (see fig. 25). It may be advisable to plan each line lightly in pencil on the final drawing paper and to follow these guidelines exactly with the pen.
12 Proportional dividers. (Courtesy Keuffel & Esser Company) Miscellaneous Materials and Equipment Below are some special items that may be useful, depending on their availability, the amount of illustrating to be done, and the financial resources of the artist. ) or computer typesetter The Preliminary Drawings Introductory Remarks The purpose of a biological illustration is to clarify or demonstrate what is contained in the written work. To acco~nplishthis elid, there are several guiding principles that are applicable to all biological illustrations executed in any style or medium.
A Handbook of Biological Illustration by Frances W. Zweifel